History of Android releases
Android is a Linux-based smartphone operating system and software platform created by Google.
The beta release of Android OS was released on 5 November 2007. The first SDK was released a week later, on 12 November 2007
Android 1.0 was the first commercially available release of the OS. It
was available on the pioneering device - the T-Mobile G1 (released
October 2008 in the US and the UK) along with the Android source code.
Android 1.1 was pushed out on 9 February 2009, coinciding with the
announcement of the HTC Dream, an internationally available twin of the
Android 1.5 Cupcake
Android 1.5 Cupcake was released on 30 April 2009. It was the first
major Android overhaul and it also was the first Android release to be
pet-named after a dessert - a tradition that has been kept alive ever
since. Every subsequent Android release was named after a dessert, whose
name started with the next letter of the alphabet.
Version 1.5 Cupcake introduced the software on-screen keyboard to
Android and allowed the production of touch devices sans QWERTY
keyboards such as the HTC Magic (announced February 2009). Equally
importantly, it enabled Android smartphones to shoot video.
Along with that, v. 1.5 Cupcake added support for third-party software
keyboards, third-party widgets, stereo Bluetooth, copy and paste in the
web browser, screen auto-rotation, and an option to upload media to
YouTube and Picasa.
Android 1.6 Donut
Android 1.6 Donut was released on 15 September 2009. It added
text-to-speech, updated Android Market now offered app screenshots, and
it introduced support for WVGA screens. The camera became faster, and
the gallery, camera and camcorder got deeply integrated with each other.
Android 2.x Eclair
Android 2.0 Eclair SDK was released on 26 October 2009. Android 2.0
introduced multiple account sync, Microsoft Exchange email support,
Bluetooth 2.1, the Quick Contact feature, showing a pop-up for call, SMS
and email, as soon as you tap on a contact's avatar. The camera
received new features such as flash support, digital zoom, scene mode,
white balance, color effect and macro focus. The web browser UI was
updated and some new features were added such as double-tap to zoom.
We saw the much overdue native support for multi-touch interaction with
software. Live wallpapers were first introduced with Eclair, as well.
The UI was redesigned, there were multiple performance improvements and
we welcomed the support for more screen sizes and resolutions.
Google Maps Navigation was also introduced alongside Android 2.0 Eclair,
quickly turning into a key selling point for Android smartphones in the
Android 2.1 was a subsequent release, which was dubbed Eclair, too, as
it wasn't a major update in terms of functionality. This sort of minor
upgrades between major releases became commonplace in future versions.
Along with Android 2.1 Eclair Google introduced its first Nexus devices
as well. Manufactured by HTC, but sold directly by Google, the Google
Nexus One was released in January 2010 and in May 2010 it also became
the first phone to be updated to Android 2.2 Froyo.
Android 2.2.x Froyo
Android 2.2 Froyo SDK was released on 20 May 2010. Froyo brought
significant performance improvements over Eclair. Storage access and
applications became faster thanks to the added JIT compiler. The web
Android 2.2 Froyo also introduced push notifications, USB tethering and
Wi-Fi hotspot functionality, an updated Android Market with automatic
updates and batch install. The web browser could use embedded file
upload fields. For the first time users could officially install
applications to the external memory. The Adobe Flash support was another
major new feature of the web browser.
Minor revisions were later released as updates such as Android 2.2.1, 2.2.2, and 2.2.3.
Android 2.3.x Gingerbread
Android 2.3 Gingerbread SDK was released on 6 December 2010. This
Android release offered an updated user interface and even better
It added native support for SIP VoIP internet telephony, improved text
input and keyboard accuracy, enhanced copy/paste functionality
(word-by-word selection), Near Field Communication (NFC) support, new
audio effects such as headphone virtualization and bass boost, new
system-wide download manager, and native support for a front-facing
Developers also received a number of under-the-hood enhancements, giving
them lower-level access to audio, graphics, and inputs, plus concurrent
garbage collection for increased performance and native support for
extra sensors such as gyroscopes and barometers. All this allowed devs
to write faster native code.
Newer phones, which came out of the box with Gingerbread, now used the newer ext4 file system.
Android 2.3 Gingerbread however, was mainly touted for its enhanced
power management, which took a more active approach to dealing with
apps, which kept the phone going for much longer
As of December 2012, Gingerbread is still the most widely used release of Android in the world.
Minor revisions were later released as updates such as Android 2.3.1, 2.3.2, 2.3.4, 2.3.5, 2.3.6, and 2.3.7.
Among the more important updates of those from a user's point of view is
Android 2.3.4 Gingerbread (April 2011) introduced support for voice or
video chat via Google Talk. Android 2.3.5 Gingerbread (July 2011)
introduced an improved Gmail app, camera enhancements, and an even
better battery efficiency.
Google continued the Nexus lineup with the launch of the Samsung-made
Google Nexus S (December 2010), which was the first phone publicly
released with Android 2.3 Gingerbread, and also the first phone to
support NFC on both hardware and software level.
Android 3.x Honeycomb
Android 3.0 Honeycomb SDK was released on 22 February 2011. It was
Android's tablet-only version and was available concurrently with
Android Gingerbread for phones.
Android Honeycomb introduced a new all-touch user interface, which did
not rely on any physical navigation buttons. Unfortunately, it was
plagued by performance issues throughout its product life.
Besides the visual differences, Honeycomb was first to introduce native
hardware acceleration and support for multi-core processors. Honeycomb
offered support for video calls over Google Talk even before Gingerbread
smartphones did (the feature was only released in Android 2.3.4).
Later on Honeycomb was updated to Android 3.1 and 3.2 before Gingerbread
and Honeycomb were both replaced by Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich.
Android 3.1 added support for USB accessories such as external keyboards
and pointing devices, joysticks and gamepads. Android 3.2 brought along
refinements in performance via optimizations for a wider range of
Android 3.x Honeycomb release was not accompanied by a dedicated Nexus
device, but Google widely used the Motorola XOOM as an ambassador and
main demonstration platform for Honeycomb.
Android 4.0.x Ice Cream Sandwich
The Android 4.0.x Ice Cream Sandwich SDK was released on 19 October 2011.
Android ICS was released along with the Google Galaxy Nexus (November 2011) - the next successor in the popular Nexus lineup
Android Ice Cream Sandwich or ICS, as it is better known, integrated the
phone and tablet branches of Android into a single edition with a
common interface, which again didn't rely on physical navigation
One of the most prominent changes in the UI was that the Widgets were
now moved to a tab of their own in the main menu. Numerous other changes
were introduced too, such as a new typeface throughout the UI - Roboto,
the ability to launch apps from the lockscreen, support for real-time
speech to text dictation, Face Unlock, Google Chrome web browser came
preinstlalled with tabs and syncing of bookmarks, camera with time-lapse
and panorama and a built-in photo editor, data usage analysis, and new
calendar and mail apps. The UI graphics and animations got hardware
acceleration and Wi-Fi Direct functionality was now supported natively.
Minor revisions were later released as updates such as Android 4.0.1 and 4.0.2.
In December 2011 Android 4.0.3 was released, fixing most bugs spotted in
the previous releases plus adding enhanced video stabilization.
Android 4.0.4 is another minor update, which further enhanced the performance of the OS.
Further minor revisions were later released as updates ranging from Android 4.0.4 to 4.0.5 and 4.0.6.
Android 4.x Jelly Bean
Android 4.1 Jelly Bean SDK was released on 9 July 2012. A new version
4.2 was released later on under the same Jelly Bean moniker.
Android 4.1 Jelly Bean has a focus on performance, aiming to get rid of
stutter by introducing Vsync (Vertical synchronization) of the timing of
the frames output and the screen's refresh rate. Also, Jelly Bean adds
triple buffering in graphics.
Instead of a smartphone, Google chose to display a tablet along with its
Android 4.1 Jelly Bean release - the Google Nexus 7 (July 2012) was
meant to show that Jelly Bean looked equally good on a tablet screen.
Beyond performance, there are other interesting features such as,
offline voice recognition and dictation, expandable notifications, USB
audio output and HDMI multichannel audio output, App encryption and
Smart App updates. The Roboto font has also been refreshed, widgets are
now dynamically resizable, and word prediction has been updated, too.
Google Now is also a pretty big deal - it processes various data about
your location, time of day, your schedule, etc. - and it shows you a
pack of information cards, which it deems important to you in the
current context. It also supports an advanced natural language voice
search function, which is quite flexible.
Minor revisions of 4.1 Jelly bean were later released as updates such as Android 4.1.1 and 4.1.2.
On top of those, Android 4.2 added multiple user accounts, native
settings shortcuts right in the notifications pane, Photo Sphere camera
mode, gesture typing, wireless screen streaming (over the Miracast
protocol), the dynamic "Daydream" screensaver, widgets on the lockscreen
and further stability improvement
A minor revision of Android 4.2 was later released as an update -
Android 4.2.1. Most importantly it added native support for Bluetooth
gamepads and joysticks.
The release of the Android 4.2 was supported with the announcement of a
fourth Nexus smartphone - the LG-made Google Nexus 4 (November 2012).
Not only that, but Google also unveiled a 10-inch tablet - the Samsung-made Google Nexus 10.
Android Key Lime Pie and beyond...
The next version of Android is yet to be announced, but rumors have it that it would be dubbed "Key Lime Pie".